Nuclear Chemical Engineering (McGraw-Hill series in nuclear by Manson Benedict PDF

By Manson Benedict

ISBN-10: 0070045313

ISBN-13: 9780070045316

E-book by means of Manson Benedict, Thomas H. Pigford, Hans Wolfgang Levi

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Extra resources for Nuclear Chemical Engineering (McGraw-Hill series in nuclear engineering)

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19 b) Transient equilibrium is reached by 'llBi from the batch decay of "'Pb, as illustrated in Fig. 7. The time to reach this transient equilibrium is a few times the half-life of 'I1Bi. , equal activities, if the ratio of the half-life of "lPb to that of '"Bi were even greater. The second daughter, #)'Tl, can also be said to be in transient equilibrium with 211Pb, at times much greater than l/(A2 +A3), because both its half-life and that of its immediate precursor are both short compared with the zilF% half-life.

By superposition, the batch-decay equation can be further generalized for the case of arbitrary initial amounts Nf of any of the radionuclides in the chain: Ni = 1 palit.. . 18) - xi> k=l kZi When a radionuclide decays to a daughter of half-life much shorter than that of its parent, the daughter builds up to an amount that remains in constant ratio to the amount of the parent, and the amount of the daughter then decreases at a rate controlled by the half-life of the parent. In this case, the daughter is said to be in equilibrium with the parent, even though the amount of the parent radionuclide may be changing with time.

As the oceans of the world contain about 10" kg of deuterium and resources of lithium minerals are of comparable magnitude, it is clear that if this fusion reaction could be utilized in a practical nuclear reactor, the world's energy resources would be enormously increased. Although intensive research is being conducted on confinement of thermonuclear plasmas, it is not yet clear whether a practical and economic fusion reactor can be developed. If fusion does become practical, isotope separation processes for extracting deuterium from natural water and for concentrating 6Li from natural lithium will become of importance Comparable to the separation of from natural uranium.

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Nuclear Chemical Engineering (McGraw-Hill series in nuclear engineering) by Manson Benedict

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