By Tim McDaniel
What did the Russian revolution of 1917 and the Iranian revolution of 1978-1979 percentage along with their drama? How do we examine a revolution led through Lenin with one encouraged via Khomeini? How is a revolution dependent totally on the city operating type just like one based to an important measure on conventional teams just like the bazaaris, small craftsmen, and non secular scholars and preachers? picking out a particular path to modernity--autocratic modernization--Tim McDaniel explores the dilemmas inherent within the efforts of autocratic monarchies in Russia and Iran to remodel their international locations into sleek commercial societies.
Originally released in 1991.
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Extra resources for Autocracy, Modernization, and Revolution in Russia and Iran (Princeton Legacy Library)
Tauris, 1987), 87-107. 11 Cited in Ann Lambton, Landlord and Peasant in Persia (London: Oxford University Press, 1953), 135. HISTORICAL LEGACIES 25 extraordinary pomp. As Malcolm wrote, "nothing can exceed the splendour of the Persian court on extraordinary occasions. It presents a scene of the greatest magnificence, regulated by the exactest order. "12 In another sense, the parallel with the Safavids is misleading, for the Qajars lacked the religious basis of authority accorded to the earlier dynasty.
Whatever these similarities, it is striking how differently the Shi'ite hi42 Raeff, Understanding Imperial Russia, 153—54. Wilfred C. Smith, On Understanding Islam (The Hague: Mouton, 1981), 108-9. 44 Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Political Thought (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982), 22. 43 HISTORICAL LEGACIES 39 erarchy responded to the challenge of modernization. Whereas the consolidation of the Muscovite state and Peter's state-building efforts entailed the creation of a formalized and hierarchical church organization, the religious hierarchy in Iran, though somewhat more structured beginning in the late nineteenth century, remained plural and somewhat amorphous.
Much of the Iranian landed gentry, and particularly the tribal khans, enjoyed great political independence, often constituting petty rulers in their own lands with their own military contingents. 27 Key nobles and khans were appointed to court positions or as local government officials; and a series of obligations, including the levying of taxes and the delivery of military contingents, was imposed upon the landed elite. These controls had some effect, at least enough to keep the Qajars precariously in power until the beginning of the twentieth century, but the elites' unusual autonomy was clearly inconsistent with the further development of the modern state.
Autocracy, Modernization, and Revolution in Russia and Iran (Princeton Legacy Library) by Tim McDaniel