By L. M. Jackman, S. Sternhell, D. H. R. Barton and W. Doering (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry
Low frequency response). The signal-to-noise ratio will be proportional to the square root of the sweep rate. The method suffers from two disadvantages. It 42 An Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy demands higher long term stability than the CAT technique. Because slow sweep rates increase the tendency towards saturation, the DOG method must usually be operated at r. f. power levels lower than with the CAT method. A modified DOG procedure which involves only a minor modification of the spectrometer has been described by Dehlsen and Robertson,618 and can lead to useful improvements in sensitivity as shown in Fig.
If we are to compare the positions of absorption lines of one compound with those of other compounds, it is necessary to refer all line positions to some standard position. The choice of the standard line position is arbitrary but we must be able to identify it in every spectrum. At first sight we might suppose that this could always be accomplished by adding to a sample a sealed capillary containing a standard substance giving a single sharp absorption signal, which we could then use as a standard line position.
If the spinning frequency is too low, the averaging of the field is incomplete and the main absorption signal is accompanied by side bands as illustrated in Fig. 1-2-12. In practice, side bands can also result from uneven spinning of the sample tube so that care must be taken to use tubes which spin smoothly. Spinning side bands are often associated with abnormal field gradients. The spacing of side bands is symmetric about the main band and is equal to the spinning frequency or some integral multiple thereof.
Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry by L. M. Jackman, S. Sternhell, D. H. R. Barton and W. Doering (Auth.)