By K. Feste
What coverage is healthier for the us to lessen the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? fresh American presidents have utilized replacement clash solution ways. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, conversing tricky yet hardly retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter technique and the worldwide battle on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq replicate this technique. Obama brought a 3rd substitute: challenge fixing and increasing peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the method prevail? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage throughout the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in a number of speeches brought by way of those leader executives to focus on and evaluate their clash solution ideas.
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Extra resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)
Difficult decisions are difficult precisely because they incorporate some element of risk. Risk perception is a function of the unknown (people tend to overestimate risks of something novel, unobservable, and unknown) and a dread factor (a perceived lack of control, potential for catastrophic consequences, certainty of fatal effects), which is even stronger than the unknown factor. They have “signal value” harbingers of worse consequences to follow. Leaders in a good situation are more likely to be cautious in their choices.
To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in such a way to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and solution recommendation. Typically, frames diagnose, evaluate, and prescribe. Frames define problems— determining what someone is doing, who is at fault; diagnose causes—identifying the forces that create the problem; make moral judgments— evaluating those who are at fault and their negative effects; and suggest remedies— offering and justifying strategies to fix the problem.
Three different ways of thinking about international relations that incorporate structural aspects of the international system, and the role and motives of actors to understand why nations sometimes cooperate with one another or engage in competition and conflict have evolved: realism, liberalism, and constructivism. These perspectives function to organize facts and derive expectations about future developments. Of the three frames explaining human nature and causes of conflict, Realists see people as self-interested and competitive; the chief concept for understanding politics is the pursuit of power.
America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency) by K. Feste