By Tim D. Spector, Harold Snieder, Alex J. MacGregor
Dual and relations facts have typically been used to quantify the genetic and environmental contribution to disorder. in the course of the software of recent analytical methods, those designs may also offer strong types within which the hunt for particular genes underlying non-Mendelian ailments could be optimised. This booklet discusses the cutting-edge in dual and sib-pairs research of advanced ailments either from the viewpoint of epidemiology (study layout, topic choice, sampling ideas) and biostatistics (path research, survival research, linkage research, organization studies). Novel methods are mentioned within which twins and sib-pairs can be utilized to fulfill the problem of settling on the positioning and serve as of genes underlying advanced qualities. This ebook will attract quite a lot of biomedical scientists drawn to the genetic foundation of ailment, epidemiologists, molecular biologists, human geneticists and scholars.
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Additional info for Advances in Twin and Sib-pair Analysis
The evolutionary theory 1904;2: 44-45 (quoted by Merriman) 8 Danforth CH. Is twinning hereditary? Journal of Heredity 1916;7: 195 9 Newman HH. The biology of twins. University of Chicago Press 1917, pp 1-185 10 Davenport CB et al. Twins. Journal of Heredity. 1919: december (quoted by Merriman) 11 Sharp. Introduction to Cytology, 1921: p357 (quoted by Merriman) 12 Merriman C. The intellectual resemblance of twins. Psychological Monographs 1924;33: 1-58 13 Siemens HW. Zwillingspathologie: Ihre Bedeutung; ihre Methodik, ihre bisherigen Ergebnisse.
Concordance for type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in male twins. Diabetologia 1987;30: 763-768. 24 Kendler KS, Eaves LJ. The estimation of probandwise concordance in twins: the effect of unequal ascertainment. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 1989;38: 253-270. 25 Holm NV. A note on ascertainment probability in the Allen/Hrubec twin model. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae 1983;32: 37-47. 26 Kendler KS, Holm NV. Differential enrollment in twin registries: its effect on prevalence and concordance rates and estimates of genetic parameters.
The above assumption purportedly allows for the possibility that co-twins of affected probands are more likely to be ascertained than co-twins of unaffected individuals. However, Kendler and Eaves 24 show that the probandwise concordance can be biased if there is a large difference in proband and co-twin ascertainment rates, particularly if the true concordance rate is high. Thus, clinical case-series (in which proband ascertainment is usually incomplete and unquantified) may give misleadingly high concordance rates, compared to studies where ascertainment is comprehensive (as in questionnaire surveys of twin register samples).
Advances in Twin and Sib-pair Analysis by Tim D. Spector, Harold Snieder, Alex J. MacGregor