By Carlton J. H. Hayes
Excerpt: ...Pretender." The Methuen Treaty (1703) used to be additionally beneficial: it allowed English retailers to promote their manufactures in Portugal with no trouble; in go back for this concession England diminished the tasks on Portuguese wines, and "Port" supplanted "Burgundy" at the tables of English gents. The Act of Union of 1707 was once now not damaging both, for it verified universal exchange rules, customs, and excise in England and in Scotland. To the in basic terms own union among the crowns of britain and Scotland which were inaugurated (1603) by means of the 1st of the Stuart monarchs of britain now succeeded lower than the final of the Stuart sovereigns a company union of the 2 monarchies less than the identify of the dominion of serious Britain (1707). Sidenote: Accession of the Hanoverians (1714); persevered Decline of Royal strength Upon the demise of Anne (1714), the crown handed Footnote: based on the Act of cost (1701). to her cousin, the son of Sophia of Hanover, George I (1714-1727). the hot king, not able even to talk the English language, less to appreciate the complex traditions of parliamentary govt, used to be neither capable nor worried to rule, yet was once content material purely to reign. The enterprise of management, as a result, was once passed over to a bunch of ministers who strove not just to thrill their royal grasp yet to hold the good-will of the important get together in Parliament. Sidenote: upward thrust of the cupboard in view that this custom, with the various customs that have grown up approximately it, has develop into a such a lot crucial a part of the govt of the uk this day, and has been copied in recent years by means of many different international locations, it is very important comprehend its early background. Even prior to the accession of the Tudors, the nice Council of nobles and prelates which had instructed and assisted early kings in issues of management had surrendered such a lot of its real features to a rating or so of "Privy Councilors." The Privy Council in flip turned unwieldy,...
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Additional info for A political and social history of modern Europe
On Spain and Portugal: E. P. Cheyney, European Background of American History (1904), pp. 60-103; U. R. , 2 vols. (1900), edited by M. A. S. Hume, Vol. II best account of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella; W. H. Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella , 3 vols. (1836), antiquated but extremely readable; Mrs. Julia Cartwright, Isabella the Catholic (1914), in ”Heroes of the Nations” Series; H. M. Stephens, Portugal (1891) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; F. W. Schirrmacher, Geschichte von Spanien , 7 vols.
Julia Cartwright, Isabella the Catholic (1914), in ”Heroes of the Nations” Series; H. M. Stephens, Portugal (1891) in ”Story of the Nations” Series; F. W. Schirrmacher, Geschichte von Spanien , 7 vols. (1902), an elaborate German work, of which Vol. VII covers the years 1492-1516. THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE. Cambridge Modern History , Vol. I (1902), ch. ix, a political sketch; James (Viscount) Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire , new ed. revised (1911); William Coxe, History of the House of Austria , Bohn edition, 4 vols.
Attending his court at specified times, and paying him various irregular taxes (the feudal dues). The estate of each nobleman might embrace a single farm, or ”manor” as it was called, inclosing a petty hamlet, or village; or it might include dozens of such manors; or, if the landlord were a particularly mighty magnate or powerful prelate, it might stretch over whole counties. Each nobleman had his manor-house or, if he were rich enough, his castle, lording it over the humble thatch-roofed cottages of the villagers.
A political and social history of modern Europe by Carlton J. H. Hayes