New PDF release: A History of Philosophy [Vol VII] : modern philosophy : from

By Frederick Copleston

ISBN-10: 0385470444

ISBN-13: 9780385470445

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A background Of Philosophy has journeyed a long way past the modest goal of its writer to common acclaim because the top historical past of philosophy in English.

Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of tremendous erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the life of God and the potential for metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient diet of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers used to be reduced to simplistic caricatures. Copleston set out to redress the inaccurate via writing an entire historical past of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and intellectual pleasure -- and person who provides full place to every philosopher, offering his proposal in a beautifully rounded demeanour and displaying his links to those that went sooner than and to people who came after him.

The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a historical past of philosophy that's not going ever to be exceeded. Thought journal summed up the final contract between students and scholars alike while it reviewed Copleston's A heritage of Philosophy as "broad-minded and aim, accomplished and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we can't suggest [it] too highly."

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Extra resources for A History of Philosophy [Vol VII] : modern philosophy : from the post-Kantian idealists to Marx, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche

Sample text

At the same time it is obvious that from the point of view of ordinary consciousness there is a distinction between presentation (VorsteUung) and thing. We have the spontaneous belief that we are acted upon by things which exist independently of the ego. And to all appearances this belief is fully justified. Hence it is incumbent on Fichte to show. in a manner consistent with the idealist position, how the point of view of ordinary consciousness arises. and how from this point of view our spontaneous belief in an objective Nature is in a sense justified.

And if it is regarded simply in this way, questions about the temporal or historical relations between the different conditions are irrelevant. For example, Fichte takes it that the subject-object relationship is essential to consciousness. And in this case there must be both subject and object, ego and non-ego, if there is to be consciousness. The historical order in which these conditions appear is irrelevant to the validity of this statement. But, as we have seen, the deduction of consciousness is also idealist metaphysics, and the pure ego has to be interpreted as a supra-individual and transfinite activity, the so-called absolute ego.

And in this sense the latter is grounded in the former and derivable from it. Similarly, what Fichte calls the formal axiom of opposition, Not-A not = A, is used to arrive at the second basic proposition. n oppositing to A. And this oppositing takes place only in and through the ego. At the same time the formal axiom of opposition is said to be grounded in the second proposition of philosophy which affirms the ego's oppositing to itself of the nonego in general. Again, the logical proposition which Fichte calls the axiom of the ground or of sufficient reason, A in part = -A, and 1 We have noted Fiehte's frank admission that no purely theoretical deduction of the second basic proposition is possible.

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A History of Philosophy [Vol VII] : modern philosophy : from the post-Kantian idealists to Marx, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche by Frederick Copleston


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